The Jewelry tradition of Indo-Pak is a combination of tradition and modern designs and techniques. Jewelry is worn by all women, some- times even men, irrespective of their social status. It communicates a MESSAGE OF LOVE, HATE, POWER, HIERARCHY AND MARRIAGE.

Gems and semi-precious stones are worn not only for the fashion purpose but they are also worn under the prescription of astrologers and spiritual leaders. These gems and stones are believed to affect ones future and destiny and believed to have strong influence on the life of a person. These people wear particular stones or Gems, especially prescribed to them to protect them from evil.

The craft of making jewelry is done by a specific groups and casts of people called “SONARS”. These sonars inherit the skill and meth- ods by direct descent. The tradition, which has survived through centuries and The skill is handed down from father to son and the son is taught this skill at a very young age till he becomes an EXPERT IN THIS SKILL.

Designs and modes of techniques vary from region to region and the material used. The most popular technique is “KUNDAN”, which was introduced by Mughals in 16th century. The Kundan technique is used for forming very delicate pieces. First, a basic form of jewelry is created with hollow spaces where stones are inserted. Then it is filled with Lac (Resinous substance). Lines are engraved to hold differ- ent colors. First the colors, which require high temperature are filled and heated with fire. The other colors are applied which require less temperature, and fired until both sides are enameled properly.